Table 1

Summary of prevalence studies of autism spectrum conditions in mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan (25 studies)
Year First author Region Sample size Area Age (years) Sample screened Screen methods Screen tools Cut-off Response rate (%) P/R Diagnostic tools Diagnostic criteria Childhood autism ASC prevalence/SE (per 10,000)
prevalence/SE (per 10,000)
1987 Tao [37] Mainland 457,200 Urban 3 to 8 C R - - - R - Rutter 0.32 (0.08) -
2000 Luo [38] Mainland 10,802 Mixed 2 to 14 SG QI ABC 31 100 P - CCMD-2-R, DSM-III-R 2.8 (1.60) -
2002 Wang [39] Mainland 3.978 Urban 2 to 6 K QI CABS 7 98.3 P CARS CCMD-2-R 17.9 (6.70) -
2002 Ren [40] Mainland 3,559 Urban 3 to 5 SG QI CABS 14 99.1 P - - 250 (2.31) -
2003 Wang [41] Mainland 7,488 Mixed 2 to 6 SG QI CABS 7 98.08 P CARS CCMD-2-R 12.3 (4.05) -
2003 Chang [42] Taiwan 660 Mixed 15 to 93 C C ASDASQ 5 100 P - DSM-IV - 60.0 (30.06)
2004 Guo [43] Mainland 5,000 Urban 0 to 6 WP QI CABS 7 99.1 P CARS CCMD-2-R 10 (4.47) -
2004 Guo [44] Mainland 3,776 Rural 2 to 6 SG QI CABS 7 100 P CARS DSM-IV 8 (4.59) -
2005 Zhang [45] Mainland 7,416 Urban 2 to 6 SG QI CABS 7 99 P CARS DSM-IV 11.0 (3.85) -
2005 Zhang [46] Mainland 1,305 Urban 3 to 7 K QI CABS 14 100 P - - 19.9 (2.47) -
2005 Liu [47] Mainland 21,866 Mixed 2 to 6 SG QI CABS 7 100 P CARS DSM-IV 13.4 (2.47) 15.3 (2.64)
2007 Yang [48] Mainland 10,412 Urban 3 to 12 PS QI ABC 31 100 P - DSM-IV 5.6 (2.32) -
2007 Wong [49] Hong Kong 4,247,206 Mixed 0 to 14 HS R - - - R CARS, ADI-R DSM-IV - 16.1 (0.19)
2008 Zhang [36] Mainland 8,681 Urban 2 to 3 SG QI CHAT - 100 P CARS DSM-IV 16.1 (4.3) -
2008 Zhang [36] Mainland 12,430 Urban 4 to 6 SG QI CABS 14 100 P CARS DSM-IV 8.85 (2.7) -
2009 Zhang [50] Mainland 5,000 Urban 0 to 6 SG QI CABS 7 99.98 P CARS CCMD-2-R 10.0 (4.47) -
2009 Wang [51] Mainland 4,156 Urban 2 to 6 K QI CABS 14 100 P - - 19.5 (6.84) -
2010 Li [52] Mainland 8,006 Mixed 1.5 to 3 SG QI CHAT - 92.99 P CARS DSM-IV 26.2 (5.71) -
2010 Wu [53] Mainland 8,532 Urban 0 to 3 SG QI CHAT - 100 P CARS DSM-IV 8.2 (3.10) -
2010 Yu [54] Mainland 7,059 Mixed 2 to 6 SG Q CABS 7 89.7 P - DSM-IV 21.2 (5.47) 22.7 (5.66)
2010 Chen [55] Mainland 7,034 Mixed 2 to 6 SG Q CABS 7 98.78 P CARS DSM-IV 14.2 (4.49) 24.2 (5.86)
2011 Wang [56] Mainland 7,500 Urban 2 to 6 K QI CABS 14 87.8 P - DSM-IV 29.5 (6.26) 75.4 (9.99)
2011 Liang [57] Mainland 2,485 Urban 3 to 6 K QI CABS 14 100 P - DSM-IV, ICD-10 14.1 (7.53) -
2011 Li [58] Mainland 616,940 Mixed 0 to 17 SG QI ABC - - P - ICD-10 2.38 (0.20) -
2011 Chien [59] Taiwan 372,642 Mixed 0 to 17 HS R - - - R - ICD-9 - 28.7 (0.88)

Sample screened: C, clinical patients; HS, population in health system; K, kindergartens; PS, primary schools; SG, stratified general population; WP, whole population. Screen methods: C, clinical referral; Q, questionnaire distribution; QI, questionnaire-based interview; R, records. Screen tools: ABC, Autism Behavior Checklist; ASDASQ, Autism Spectrum Disorder in Adults Screening Questionnaire; CABS, Clancy Autism Behavior Scale; CARS, Childhood Autism Rating Scale; CHAT, Checklist for Autism in Toddlers. P, Perspective; R, Retrospective. Diagnostic criteria: ADI-R, Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised; CCMD-2-R,Chinese Classification of Mental Disorders, 2nd edition, revised; DSM-III-R, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd edition, revised; DSM-IV, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition; ICD-9, International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision; ICD-10, International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision.ASC, autism spectrum conditions; SE,: Standard error; -, data not available.

Sun et al.

Sun et al. Molecular Autism 2013 4:7   doi:10.1186/2040-2392-4-7

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