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Open Access Research

Non-synonymous single-nucleotide variations of the human oxytocin receptor gene and autism spectrum disorders: a case–control study in a Japanese population and functional analysis

Wen-Jie Ma1, Minako Hashii1, Toshio Munesue2, Kenshi Hayashi3, Kunimasa Yagi4, Masakazu Yamagishi4, Haruhiro Higashida1256 and Shigeru Yokoyama1256*

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Biophysical Genetics, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medicine, 13-1 Takara-machi, Kanazawa 920-8640, Japan

2 Research Center for Child Mental Development, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-8640, Japan

3 Department of Clinical Laboratory, Kanazawa University Hospital, Kanazawa 920-8641, Japan

4 Department of Internal Medicine, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medicine, Kanazawa 920-8640, Japan

5 Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Japan Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo 102-0075, Japan

6 MEXT Strategic Research Program for Brain Sciences (SRPBS), Okazaki 444-0840, Japan

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Molecular Autism 2013, 4:22  doi:10.1186/2040-2392-4-22

Published: 1 July 2013

Abstract

Background

The human oxytocin receptor (hOXTR) is implicated in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and is a potential target for therapeutic intervention. Several studies have reported single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the OXTR gene associated with ASDs. These SNPs, however, reside outside the protein-coding region. Not much is known about genetic variations that cause amino acid substitutions that alter receptor functions.

Methods

Variations in the OXTR gene were analyzed in 132 ASD patients at Kanazawa University Hospital in Japan and 248 unrelated healthy Japanese volunteers by re-sequencing and real-time polymerase chain reaction-based genotyping. Functional changes in variant OXTRs were assessed by radioligand binding assay and measurements of intracellular free calcium concentrations ([Ca2+]i) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) levels.

Results

Six subjects (4.5%) in the ASD group and two in the control group (0.8%) were identified as heterozygotes carrying the R376G variation (rs35062132; c.1126C>G); one individual from the ASD group (0.8%) and three members of the control group (1.2%) were found to be carrying R376C (c.1126C>T). The C/G genotype significantly correlated with an increased risk of ASDs (odds ratio (OR) = 5.83; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.16 to 29.33; P = 0.024, Fisher’s exact test). Consistently, the G allele showed a correlation with an increased likelihood of ASDs (OR = 5.73; 95% CI = 1.15 to 28.61; P = 0.024, Fisher’s exact test). The frequencies of the C/T genotype and the T allele in the ASD and control groups did not differ significantly. We also examined changes in agonist-induced cellular responses mediated by the variant receptors hOXTR-376G and hOXTR-376C. OXT-induced receptor internalization and recycling were faster in hOXTR-376G-expressing HEK-293 cells than in cells expressing hOXTR-376R or hOXTR-376C. In addition, the elevation in [Ca2+]i and IP3 formation decreased in the cells expressing hOXTR-376G and hOXTR-376C tagged with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), in comparison with the cells expressing the common-type hOXTR-376R tagged with EGFP.

Conclusions

These results suggest that the rare genetic variation rs35062132 might contribute to the pathogenesis of ASDs, and could provide a molecular basis of individual differences in OXTR-mediated modulation of social behavior.

Keywords:
Autism spectrum disorders; Inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate; Intracellular free calcium; Oxytocin; Oxytocin receptor; Single-nucleotide variation