Table 3

Risk associated with a one-unit increase in the natural log-transformed concentration of cytokines and chemokines measured in midpregnancy maternal serum in the Early Markers for Autism studya

ASD mothers vs. GP mothers

ASD mothers vs. DD mothers

DD mothers vs. GP mothers


Analyte

ORadj

95% CI

ORadj

95% CI

ORadj

95% CI


GM-CSF

1.06

0.88 to 1.28

0.66

0.44 to 1.00

1.28

0.95 to 1.73

IFN-γ

1.52

1.19 to 1.93

1.46

0.94 to 2.26

1.42

0.99 to 2.05

IL-10

1.37

1.00 to 1.87

1.40

0.76 to 2.61

1.65

1.00 to 2.72

IL-12

0.93

0.58 to 1.47

0.39

0.13 to 1.17

0.82

0.42 to 1.62

IL-1β

0.98

0.83 to 1.15

0.84

0.61 to 1.17

1.04

0.81 to 1.32

IL-2

1.22

0.96 to 1.57

1.31

0.77 to 2.21

1.72

1.12 to 2.64

IL-4

1.51

1.12 to 2.03

1.19

0.70 to 2.03

2.18

1.24 to 3.85

IL-5

1.45

1.07 to 1.98

1.70

0.87 to 3.34

1.25

0.72 to 2.18

IL-6

1.10

0.97 to 1.26

0.79

0.62 to 1.02

1.22

1.01 to 1.48

TNF-α

1.07

0.85 to 1.35

0.66

0.42 to 1.04

1.27

0.93 to 1.74

IL-8

0.96

0.80 to 1.15

0.88

0.65 to 1.18

1.17

0.91 to 1.51

Eotaxin

1.18

0.79 to 1.74

0.72

0.38 to 1.37

1.25

0.65 to 2.42

IP-10

1.16

0.74 to 1.81

0.95

0.46 to 1.97

0.70

0.39 to 1.27

MCP-1

1.06

0.75 to 1.50

0.83

0.45 to 1.53

1.15

0.75 to 1.77

MIP-1α

1.11

0.94 to 1.31

0.87

0.61 to 1.23

1.10

0.86 to 1.41

MIP-1β

1.10

0.93 to 1.30

0.79

0.53 to 1.17

1.16

0.89 to 1.52

RANTES

0.92

0.65 to 1.31

0.97

0.44 to 2.14

0.98

0.55 to 1.76


aASD: autism spectrum disorder; GP: general population; DD: developmental delay; ORadj: adjusted odds ratio; 95% CI: 95% confidence interval; GM-CSF: granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor; MIP-1: macrophage inflammatory protein; MCP-1: monocyte chemotactic protein-1; IP-10: IFN-γ-induced protein 10; RANTES: regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted. Results are adjusted for maternal weight and gestational age of the fetus at the time of specimen collection, as well as for maternal age, race, ethnicity and country of origin.

Goines et al. Molecular Autism 2011 2:13   doi:10.1186/2040-2392-2-13

Open Data